Things to know
Refilling Your Northern Standard Vape Oil Cartridge
All Northern Standard vape oil cartridges are refillable. To refill your cartridge using a Northern Standard refill kit:
- Remove the rubber cap from the refill syringe by unscrewing it from the plastic seat, being careful to leave the plastic seat on the syringe.
- Screw the refill tip or ‘needle’ included with your refill kit (contact us if you do not have one) into the plastic seat in place of the rubber cap.
- Unscrew the cartridge mouth piece, and remove it from the cartridge.
- Place the refill tip gently between the metal post and glass, push down slowly on the syringe plunger, and rotate the cartridge as necessary to allow the oil to distribute and settle more evenly. DO NOT try to refill the cartridge by placing the refill tip into the center post (airway) of the cartridge.
- After refilling the cartridge, replace the mouth piece by screwing it back onto the center post, ensuring the silicon seal is properly reseated between the mouth piece and glass.
- Pull back slightly on the syringe plunger to remove any product from the refill tip, remove the refill tip, replace the rubber cap.
If your cartridge has leaked or caused excessive accumulation of oil between the cartridge and battery, finish the product in the cartridge, but it is best not to refill it. Discard the cartridge upon finishing he product, and use a fresh cartridge.
Caring for Your Northern Standard Vape Oil Cartridge
All Northern Standard vape oil cartridges are made from pyrex glass and metal (no plastic!) and are designed to provide maximum draw with our Northern Standard batteries. Some oils will have a small amount of flow at the bottom of the cartridge where it contacts the battery. This will not affect the performance of the cartridge or the battery. However if you wish the clean the contact point, a small amount of isopropyl alcohol (the stuff you have in your medicine cabinet) and a Q-tip are very effective.
You should take care of your cartridge to avoid leakage. Do not expose the cartridge to hot temperatures, for example by leaving it in your car. Hot temperatures decrease the viscosity of the oil (it makes them runnier) and may cause leakage. Avoid extreme decreases in atmospheric pressure. Our cartridges are filled at 10,578 feet (hard to get much lower atmospheric pressure), so you can take it pretty much anywhere, but if you travel to a lower altitude then back to a higher altitude, it may cause leakage. Notably most of our competitor’s cartridges are filled at lower altitudes, so if you buy them from a dispensary at a higher altitude they may already be leaking at the time of purchase. This is one of the many natural advantages to producing our products in Alma. Try to keep your cartridge upright to the extent reasonably possible.
Northern Standard Batteries
Northern Standard brand batteries are among the highest spec 510 thread pen batteries on the market. A single charge lasts and lasts and the battery will endure through many charges with the included USB device. 5 clicks turn our batteries on or off. There is no need to turn the battery off between uses. Press the button to heat your oil via the cartridge. 3 clicks change the voltage from low to medium to high. If you have the Recon or Growers’ Edition, use the built-in flashlight by first turning off the battery (5 clicks) then holding the button down for 3 seconds. Turn off the flashlight by pushing the button.
Among the exciting benefits to a legalized cannabis industry are the many new forms edibles have taken. It is prudent to consume in careful moderation if new to consuming edibles – they can take a half hour or more to take effect, and you can always eat more but not less.
Cannabis is metabolized differently when consuming cannabis edibles as opposed to vaping or smoking. When inhaled, cannabis is metabolized through the lungs and THC is the main psychoactive compound that is being absorbed. When eaten, cannabis is metabolized through the liver and in order for your body to process the psychoactive compounds of the plant it actually alters the THC compound to 11-hydroxyTHC. THC is fat-soluble and by bending its molecular structure it can then be absorbed by the body. This process can cause a delayed effect and also make the effects longer and stronger once they do begin.
Some have eaten edibles without feeling the effects. This can be attributed to one of two reasons. One is that the consumer is in the minority of those who cannot absorb 11-hydroxyTHC correctly, and therefore will not be able to feel the high from eating cannabis. Another reason is that THC is lipid or fat soluble, and if an edible is free of fat and eaten on an empty stomach, there will not be sufficient fats for the THC to bond to. THC needs to hitch a ride on the fats in your diet so it is always good to eat before consuming your edible to help them activate correctly.
Identifying Your Strain
Cannabis comes in three genetic variations – Indica, Sativa and Hybrid.
Indica strains have mostly an earthy note and taste and often have a sedative effect. Sativa strains have a predominantly cerebral effect and have been known to help stir productivity and creativity, and are perhaps not the best choice for those with anxiety. Hybrid strains have characteristics of both Indica and Sativa strains, and in some cases are the result of years of cross breeding to achieve certain effects, taste, smell and potency.
New research has found that the plant’s terpenes, which provide aroma and taste, have an entourage effect with cannabinoids. This means that while THC and CBD will provide an altered state, the terpenes greatly enhance the effect. It’s the reason some vapor cartridges seem to have something missing when compared with smoking raw flower.
Like wine, certain notes of the cannabis plant will register differently on your palette. If a strain has an earthy or sour note it will register lower in your nose as it registers with your olfactory receptors. This strain will usually be an indica. If the hues have a sweeter note it will register higher on the olfactory scale and you can feel it in your sinuses. This will usually be a sativa.
When searching for the strain that suits you best look for the effects that are going to suit your needs over the strain’s other characteristics. Many have been turned off of cannabis due to a mismatch of effects with the consumer. Those with anxiety are perhaps be better suited with an Indica-dominant strain, which will relax both the mind and body.
THC & CBD
Tetra Hydro Cannabinol is the full name for THC, the well-known psychoactive chemical found in cannabis. Some would assume it to be a defense mechanism for the plant to keep animals from consuming it. Others postulate that Cannabis and humans have a symbiotic relationship through the human cannabinoid system
Cannabidiol or CBD is the non-psychoactive chemical compound of the Cannabis plant that is believed to reduce seizures and convulsions, relieve anxiety, reduce contractions in the small intestines, promote bone growth, suppress muscle spasms, slow or kill bacteria growth, reduce blood sugar levels, improve blood circulation, inhibit cell growth in cancer and tumor cells, and reduce or eliminate pain. CBD is just one of the known cannabinoids and CBD, CBG, CBC & CBN all have varying applications to aid in health.
The prohibition of cannabis has limited our knowledge and understanding of what these compounds can do. With more freedom of study we are finding many exciting applications for these previously unknown compounds.
At Northern Standard we endeavor to preserve the natural terpene profile of our source Cannabis through to our extracted products. All of our Cannabis oils have incredibly robust terpene profiles.
For many people the word “terpene” is a strange and unfamiliar term, but it won’t be for much longer. As science and technology carry us to better understandings of cannabis, we’re beginning to see that there’s a lot more to Cannabis than its cannabinoid content. To get a hint of the other therapeutic compounds in your strain, just give it a sniff.
Terpenes are fragrant oils that give cannabis its aromatic diversity. They’re what give Blueberry its signature berry smell, Sour Diesel its funky fuel flavor, and Lavender its sweet floral aroma. These oils are secreted in the flower’s sticky resin glands, the same ones that produce THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids. Terpenes are by no means unique to cannabis; they can be found in many other herbs, fruits, and plants as well.
Like cannabinoids, terpenes bind to receptors in the brain and give rise to various effects.
When choosing a strain based on its terpene content, keep in mind that different harvests may demonstrate dramatically different terpenoid profiles due to variances in growing and curing techniques. Lab-tested products are the only surefire way of knowing a strain’s terpene potency – without it, you’ll have to rely on your nose to guide you. At Northern Standard all of our extract products are lab-tested for terpene profiles. We strive for consistency and reliability in the crafting of all our extracted products.
Here is a list of common terpenes found in Cannabis and their characteristics:
Myrcene, specifically β-myrcene, is a monoterpene and the most common terpene produced by cannabis (some varieties contain up to 60% of the essential oil). Its aroma has been described as musky, earthy, herbal – akin to cloves. A high myrcene level in cannabis (usually above 0.5%) results in the well-known “couch-lock” effect of classic Indica strains. Myrcene is found in oil of hops, citrus fruits, bay leaves, eucalyptus, wild thyme, lemon grass and many other plants.
Myrcene has some very special medicinal properties, including lowering the resistance across the blood to brain barrier, allowing itself and many other chemicals to cross the barrier easier and more quickly. In the case of cannabinoids (like THC), myrcene allows the effects of the cannabinoid to take effect more quickly. More uniquely still, myrcene has been shown to increase the maximum saturation level of the CB1 receptor, allowing for a greater maximum psychoactive effect.
Myrcene is a potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and antimutagenic. It blocks the action of cytochrome, aflatoxin B and other pro-mutagenic carcinogens. The Bonamin et al study focused on the role of β-myrcene in preventing peptic ulcer disease. The study revealed that β-myrcene acts as an inhibitor of gastric and duodenal ulcers, suggesting it may be helpful in preventing peptic ulcer disease. Its sedative and relaxing effects also make it ideal for the treatment of insomnia and pain.
Since myrcene is normally found in essential oil from citrus fruit, many claim eating a fresh mango about 45 minutes before consuming cannabis will result in a faster onset of psycho activity and greater intensity. Be sure to choose a mango that is ripe otherwise the myrcene level will be too low to make a difference.
Pinene is a bicyclic monoterpenoid. Akin to its name, pinene has distinctive aromas of pine and fir. There are two structural isomers of pinene found in nature: α-pinene and β-pinene. Both forms are important components of pine resin. α-pinene is the most widely encountered terpenoid in nature. Pinene is found in many other conifers, as well as in non-coniferous plants. It is found mostly in balsamic resin, pine woods and some citrus fruits. The two isomers of pinene constitute the main component of wood turpentine. Pinene is one of the principal monoterpenes that is important physiologically in both plants and animals. It tends to react with other chemicals, forming a variety of other terpenes (like limonene) and other compounds.
Pinene is used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory, expectorant, bronchodilator and local antiseptic. α-pinene is a natural compound isolated from pine needle oil which has shown anti-cancer activity and has been used as an anti-cancer agent in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many years. It is also believed that the effects of THC may be lessened if mixed with pinene.
Limonene is a monocyclic monoterpenoid and one of two major compounds formed from pinene. As the name suggests, varieties high in limonene have strong citrusy smells like oranges, lemons and limes. Strains high in limonene promote a general uplift in mood and attitude. This citrusy terpene is the major constituent in citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper and peppermint, as well as in several pine needle oils.
Limonene is highly absorbed by inhalation and quickly appears in the bloodstream. It assists in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and other body tissue. It is well documented that limonene suppresses the growth of many species of fungi and bacteria, making it an ideal antifungal agent for ailments such as toenail fungus. Limonene may be beneficial in protecting against various cancers, and orally administered limonene is currently undergoing clinical trials in the treatment of breast cancer. Limonene has been found to even help promote weight-loss.
Plants use limonene as a natural insecticide to ward off predators. Limonene was primarily used in food and perfumes until a couple of decades ago, when it became better known as the main active ingredient in citrus cleaner. It has very low toxicity and adverse effects are rarely associated with it.
Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants such as Thai basils, cloves, cinnamon leaves and black pepper, and in minor quantities in lavender. It’s aroma has been described as peppery, woody and/or spicy. Caryophyllene is the only terpene known to interact with the endocannabinoid system (CB2). Studies show β–caryophyllene holds promise in cancer treatment plans. Research shows shows that β–caryophyllene selectively binds to the CB2 receptor and that it is a functional CB2 agonist. Further, β–caryophyllene was identified as a functional non-psychoactive CB2 receptor ligand in foodstuff and as a macrocyclic anti-inflammatory cannabinoid in cannabis.
The Fine/Rosenfeld pain study demonstrates that other phytocannabinoids in combination, especially cannabidiol (CBD) and β-caryophyllene, delivered by the oral route appear to be promising candidates for the treatment of chronic pain due to their high safety and low adverse effects profiles.
The Horváth et al study suggests β-caryophyllene, through a CB2 receptor dependent pathway, may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent nephrotoxicity (poisonous effect on the kidneys) caused by anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin.
The Jeena, Liju et al study investigated the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from black pepper, of which caryophyllene is a main constituent, and studied its pharmacological properties. Black pepper oil was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. This suggests that high-caryophyllene strains may be useful in treating a number of medical issues such as arthritis and neuropathy pain.
Beta-caryophyllene is used especially in chewing gum when combined with other spicy mixtures or citrus flavorings.
Linalool is a non-cyclic monoterpenoid and has been described as having floral and lavender undertones. Varieties high in linalool promote calming, relaxing effects.
Linalool has been used for centuries as a sleep aid. Linalool lessens the anxious emotions provoked by pure THC, thus making it helpful in the treatment of both psychosis and anxiety. Studies also suggest that linalool boosts the immune system; can significantly reduce lung inflammation; and can restore cognitive and emotional function (making it useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease).
As shown by the Ma, J., Xu et al study, linalool may significantly reduce lung inflammation caused by cigarette smoke by blocking the carcinogenesis induced by benz[α]anthracene, a component of the tar generated by the combustion of tobacco. This finding indicates limonene may be helpful in reducing the harm caused by inhaling cannabis smoke.
Linalool boosts the immune system as it directly activates immune cells through specific receptors and/or pathways. The Sabogal-Guáqueta et al study suggests linalool may reverse the histopathological (the microscopic examination of biological tissues to observe the appearance of diseased cells and tissues in very fine detail) hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease and could restore cognitive and emotional functions via an anti-inflammatory effect.
The Environmental Protection Agency has approved its use as a pesticide, flavor agent and scent. It is used in a wide variety of bath and body products and is commonly listed under ingredients for these products as beta linalool, linalyl alcohol, linaloyl oxide, p-linalool and alloocimenol. Its vapors have been shown to be an effective insecticide against fruit flies, fleas and cockroaches.
Linalool has been isolated in several hundred different plants. The Lamiaceae plant and herb family, which includes mints and other scented herbs, are common sources. The Lauraceae plant family, which includes laurels, cinnamon, and rosewood, is also a readily available source. The Rutaceae family, which contains citrus plants, is another viable source. Birch trees and several different plant species that are found in tropical and boreal climate zones also produce linalool. Although technically not plants, some fungi produce linalool, as well. Linalool is a critical precursor in the formation of Vitamin E.
Terpinolene is a common component of sage and rosemary and is found in the oil derived from Monterey cypress. Its largest use in the United States is in soaps and perfumes. It is also a great insect repellent. Terpinolene is known to have a piney aroma with slight herbal and floral nuances. It tends to have a sweet flavor reminiscent of citrus fruits like oranges and lemons.
Terpinolene has been found to be a central nervous system depressant used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety. Further, terpinolene was found to markedly reduce the protein expression of AKT1 in K562 cells and inhibited cell proliferation involved in a variety of human cancers.
Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, emits pungent odors of damp woodlands and fir needles. Camphene may play a critical role in cardiovascular disease.
The Vallianou et al study found camphene reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats. Given the importance that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in heart disease, the results of this study provide insight into to how camphene might be used as an alternative to pharmaceutical lipid lowering agents which are proven to cause intestinal problems, liver damage and muscle inflammation. This finding alone warrants further investigation.
Camphene is a minor component of many essential oils such as turpentine, camphor oil, citronella oil and ginger oil. It is used as a food additive for flavoring, and also used in the preparation of fragrances. It is produced industrially by catalytic isomerization of the more common α-pinene.
α-Terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, and 4-terpineol are three closely related monoterpenoids. The aroma of terpineol has been compared to lilacs and flower blossoms. Terpineol is often found in cannabis varieties that have high pinene levels, which unfortunately mask the fragrant aromas of terpineol.
Terpineol, specifically α-terpineol, is known to have calming, relaxing effects. It also exhibits antibiotic, AChe inhibitor and antioxidant antimalarial properties.
Phellandrene is described as pepperminty, with a slight scent of citrus. Phellandrene is believed to have special medicinal values. It has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat digestive disorders. It is one of the main compounds in turmeric leaf oil, which is used to prevent and treat systemic fungal infections.
Phellandrene is perhaps the easiest terpene to identify in the lab. When a solution of phellandrene in a solvent (or an oil containing phellandrene) is treated with a concentrated solution of sodium nitrate and then with a few drops of glacial acetic acid, very large crystals of phellandrene nitrate speedily form.
Phellandrene was first discovered in eucalyptus oil. It wasn’t until the early 1900s that it was actually constituted and shown that phellandrene from eucalyptus oil contained two isomeric phellandrene (usually referred to as α-phellandrene and β-phellandrene), and on oxidation with potassium permanganate gave distinct acids, concluding that the acids had been derived from two different isomeric phellandrene. Before that, phellandrene was mistaken for pinene or limonene. Today, we are aware of many essential oils where phellandrene is present. It is, however, a somewhat uncertain terpene as it can only be detected in the oils of some species, especially in Eucalypts, at particular times of the year.
Phellandrene can be found in a number of herbs and spices, including cinnamon, garlic, dill, ginger and parsley. A number of plants produce β-phellandrene as a constituent of their essential oils, including lavender and grand fir. The recognizable odors of some essential oils depend almost entirely upon the presence of phellandrene. Oil of pepper and dill oil are composed almost entirely of phellandrene. The principal constituent in oil of ginger is phellandrene. Phellandrene, particularly α-phellandrene, is absorbed through the skin, making it attractive for use in perfumes. It is also used as a flavoring for food products.
Delta-3-carene is a bicyclic monoterpene with a sweet, pungent odor. It is found naturally in many healthy, beneficial essential oils, including cypress oil, juniper berry oil and fir needle essential oils. In higher concentrations, delta-3-carene can be a central nervous system depressant. It is often used to dry out excess body fluids, such as tears, mucus, and sweat.
It is nontoxic, but may cause irritation when inhaled. Perhaps high concentrations of delta-3-carene in some strains may be partially responsible for symptoms of coughing, itchy throat and eye afflictions when smoking cannabis.
Delta-3-carene is also naturally present in pine extract, bell pepper, basil oil, grapefruit and orange juices, citrus peel oils from fruits like lemons, limes, mandarins, tangerines, oranges and kumquats.
Carene is a major component of turpentine and is used as a flavoring in many products.
Humulene is a sesquiterpene also known as α-humulene and α–caryophyllene; an isomer of β–caryophyllene. Humulene is found in hops, cannabis sativa strains, and Vietnamese coriander, among other naturally occurring substances. Humulene is what gives beer its distinct ‘hoppy’ aroma.
Humulene is considered to be anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anorectic (suppresses appetite). It has commonly been blended with β–caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation. Humulene has been used for generations in Chinese medicine. It aids in weight loss by acting as an appetite suppressant.
Pulegone, a monocyclic monoterpenoid, is a minor component of cannabis. Higher concentrations of pulegone are found in rosemary. Rosemary breaks down acetylcholine in the brain, allowing nerve cells to communicate more effectively with one another.
An ethnopharmacology study indicates pulegone may have significant sedative and fever-reducing properties. It may also alleviate the side effects of short-term memory loss sometimes associated with higher levels of THC.
Pulegone has a pleasant peppermint aroma and is considered to be a strong insecticide.
Sabinene is a bicyclic monoterpene whose aromas are reminiscent of the holidays (pines, oranges, spices). Results of an ongoing study by Valente et al suggest that sabinene should be explored further as a natural source of new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs for the development of food supplements, nutraceuticals or plant-based medicines.
Sabinene occurs in many plants, including Norway spruce, black pepper, basil and Myristica fragrans (an evergreen indigenous to the Moluccas)—the Spice Islands of Indonesia. The seeds of the Myristica fragrans are the world’s main source of nutmeg. Sabinene exists as (+)- and (–)-enantiomers.
Geraniol produces a sweet, delightful smell similar to roses. This makes geraniol a popular choice for many bath and body products. It is also known to be an effective mosquito repellant. Medically, geraniol shows promise in the treatment of neuropathy.
History of Cannabis Prohibition
The first US federal regulation of cannabis came into effect in 1906 with the Pure Food and Drug Act. It was enacted in response to many patent medicines making fantastical claims of effectiveness without evidence. The Act limited the sale of narcotics and cannabis to pharmacies and required a doctor recommendation to obtain the medicines. There were many other state laws enacted that also strengthened the restriction on Cannabis. The Pure Food and Drug act was revitalized in 1938, creating legal parameters for federal sentencing. This was the first time that those using a banned or restricted substance risked incarceration.
Many western and southwestern states began passing cannabis poison acts beginning with California in 1907. While the law was direct the intention was indirect. During this period leading up to the Great Depression, Mexican migrant workers were being employed over local workers due to the cheap cost of labor. Cannabis began being referred to as “marihuana”, the Mexican slang which was intended as a characterization to marginalize these migrant workers.
The Spanish-American War also occurred during this period, in which Pancho Villa took control of 800,000 acres of William Randolph Hearsts paper forests. In response, many of Hearsts newspapers began running reefer madness articles about the ‘Killer Weed’ and the dangerous psychosis that cannabis would bring. Most of these articles highlighted these effects in Mexican immigrants over other races. No factual basis was ever found for the claims made in Hearsts articles.
Harry Anslinger rose to prominence during this period as the director of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, appointed in 1930. Together with Hearst, Anslinger directed a national media campaign spreading false stories of minorities flying into violent and sexual rages after consuming the plant in order to get public support for outlawing Cannabis. Coincidentally or not. Dupont Corporation, to which Hearst was found to be linked, had just developed Nylon as a hemp fabric substitute and were helping fund the campaign to gain public support.
Hearst lobbied to ban hemp, and by linking it to Cannabis he and Anslinger were able to raise enough hysteria towards the plant that Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937. There was no constitutional provision to allow the federal government to ban narcotics or Cannabis, so instead they created a system of taxation with no bureaucracy established to generate licenses and process the tax – since they could not pay the tax no one could legally grow Cannabis.
The next major legal set back for Cannabis was Richard Nixon’s Controlled Substance Act of 1970, which established schedules or classifications for narcotics. Cannabis was placed under schedule 1, for harmful substances with no recognized medical benefit. Doctors assigned to the bill’s legislation process championed the proposal that Cannabis be classified as schedule 2, which would have allowed Cannabis to be made available and subject to research, but Nixon saw it as a way to quell the counterculture that was giving him such public backlash at the time. The CSA brought about State and Federal mandatory sentencing minimums for certain offenses regarding cannabis and the desired or undesired effect was the birth of the prison-industrial or prison for profit phenomenon. The Controlled Substances Act is still in effect at the federal level today.